The creation of a piece in wax that the tenure must be ensured by its achievement in bronze, is only the first phase in the production of an art bronze which requires several steps all more complicated the ones than the others.The techniques of these procedures require from both the sculptors and the art founders, an excellent knowledge of the tricks of the trade and "secrets", a meticulous handling, a multitude of precautions and a sharp sense of precision to obtain bronzes whose delicates intricacies of the modeling, fine details and the fragility of structures are faithfully reproduced in all their accuracy.
In truth, only the sculptors who have had an experience in lost wax art foundry and thus by having the practical understanding of this process can overcome its complexities, its demands and the necessities required by this process. Moreover, few people have the talent, i.e. the modeling dexterity to render delicate forms in their sculptures, to be able to exploit to its utmost all the possibilities offered by this process and really master the art of lost wax bronze casting and all its technical signification and thus of its artistic scope.
Some sculptors dare to present to the most experienced bronze casting art foundries artworks with thin walls and complex shapes that can actually not be moulded so as to obtain the wax prototypes necessary to lost wax casting. They go directly to the stages of assembly and scaffolding of sprueing and vents, that is to say works without failsafe moulding and which therefore can only be unique one of a kind artworks. It goes without saying that these one of a kind sculptures are more valuable and require an expensive rating equivalent to their art bronze original and unique scarcity.
For cons, furthermore the moulding step also serves as a security to fall back on, so as to be able to make another foundry prototype in order to palliate the risk of a botched casting or to produce the replicas of a multiple original. The special techniques associated with this trade are not only the 'sine qua non conditions' of the art foundry lost wax process but the materials utilized are also of crucial importance. For the reasons mentioned above, only the materials, some very modern, allow the desired precision and accuracy and thusly meet the necessary requirements and precautions to make it possible to obtain the anticipated successes.
These non-recoverable materials whether reusable or not are very expensive and added to the difficulties and necessary precautions that are attached to the multiple operations of this process, render the foundry costs of lost wax casting of art bronzes prohibitive for the artists and can thereby restrict freedom of expression and creative evolution of artists. The costs of these lost wax casting foundry operations are equivalent to eighty per cent of the total cost of creating bronze sculptures.
To make permanent the wax originals, they must be transformed into bronze by the following
lost wax cast art foundry operations:
1 - Elastomeric moulding on the sculpture or the original elements. - 2 - Construction of thin-walled wax and / or pouring of wax into mould.
3 - Cautious extraction of a cast wax shell named foundry prototype. - 4 - Tree-up of proximity casting sprues, vents and security mass networks.
5 - Scaffolding network installation of rough pouring jets, vents and spout. - 6 - Setting up of cores materials for interior hollow voids.
7 - soaking and sprinkling of the refractory shell cast covering materials. - 8 - Kiln firing of ceramic shell imprint to evacuate wax from interior.
9 - High temperature bronze smelting in casting crucible. - 10 - Bronze pouring in the refractory ceramic shell imprint.
11 - Release of cast art bronze by breaking and smashing the refractory shell. - 12 - Sandblasting and cleaning of the bronze sculpture.
13 - Crude trimming of vents, jets and burbot masses of cast bronze. - 14 - Fine trimming of casting splashes and precision chiselling of contact points.
15 - Welding and/or bolt tapping together of the various sculptural elements. - 16 - Rough brushing and fine polishing finish of the cast bronze sculpture.
17 - Patinating hues and hot application of oxide tints on art work. - 18 - Assembly and seat mounting on base when appropriate.
This also means that all the sculptures cast in aluminum and quite a few in bronze that execute and show many sculptors, are not modeled in wax and then cast in bronze by the processes of refractory investment or shell coating used by lost wax casting art foundries but are pieces carved in Styrofoam and then cast in various metals using the commercial foundries'sand moulding techniques and not those of art foundries using the process of lost wax casting.
"I take high quality fine art paper pulp for the fabrication of my paper matter works which I hand press in the depts forms of moulds. This allows me to take accurate impressions and obtain high prominents reliefs which when dried have a surprising hard rigidity that makes the realization of strong and lightweight wall artworks. The sculptural approach of this 'paper matter' medium has unexpected properties which promotes creative inventiveness that permit unusual resulting large rupestrial murals works."- Rusdi Genest
The unusual use of handmade paper pulp as base medium in artistic creation was initiated in recent decades by artists who favour its use, and the adoption of the term 'paper matter' is a consequence resulting from this application. Traditionally, the pulp of cotton and/or flax is used to fabricate handmade craft sheets of paper of high quality for the use of artists in their watercolour, printmaking and drawing artworks.
A sculptural approach towards the unexpected qualities and unusual versatile features of this material fosters the inventiveness that bring about innovations which lead to certain factoring processes that permit obtaining unusual results in relief sculpture. As a direct medium of expression, this fine art paper pulp material can render, either by moulding it into hollow forms or by assembly and construction, mild reliefs or volumes which fundamentally differentiates it from surface expression called "paper works".Stamped in hollowed mould forms then pressed by hand and dried, the pulp closely marrying the hollows and ridges of the mould takes precise impressions and sometimes gives rather high prominences. This paper pulp, when moulded to a certain thickness, once dried has a surprising rigidity which facilitates the achievement of strong and quite lightweight rather large sculptural works. This material may of course be stained, painted, weathered and patinated to become also a substrate of a pictorial approach that combines painting and sculpture to offer fascinating creative exploration perspectives.